Tony Hanna provides an introduction to and an analysis of the new energetic movements in the Church. He asks how the theological questions they raise might be resolved and what are the risks and potential they bring for the Church.
Tony Hanna, a former teacher, is the co-founder of the ecclesial movement, Family of God, and current Director of the Pastoral Plan in the Archdiocese of Armagh.
He is married and has four children and three grandchildren.
This book is an introduction to and an analysis of the new, ecclesial movements that have sprung up in the Roman Catholic Church, mostly in the wake of the Second Vatican Council and usually led by highly motivated and dedicated lay persons.
Just as Vatican II was a significant surprise to the Church and the world, so too the emergence of these new groups has caused more than a little stir. Almost like an unexpected pregnancy, their arrival has brought a mixture of joy and dismay. Some, like Pope John Paul II, see them as a hope for the Church in the midst of difficult times. Others, among them a number of bishops and high ranking officials in the Church, see them as usurpers and divisive at a time when the Church needs unity and clarity.
This study looks critically at both sides of the question. It examines three of them in some depth (Communion and Liberation, the Neo-Catechumenal Way and the Charismatic Renewal) balancing their evangelising gifts against the real criticisms raised against them. The uthor concludes that "by concretely realizing the ecclesiology of Vatican II, these movements are putting before the Church a model of Christian communion" which promises to profoundly change the Church of our time for the better.
The author Tony Hanna currently serves as Senior Education Consultant at Marino Institute of Education, Dublin. A former teacher and school counsellor, he is the founding member of an ecclesial community known as the Family of God in Dundalk, Ireland where they have an Oratory in a shopping centre with adoration of the Blessed Sacrament available throughout the day. He recently edited Strategies for Building Faith Communities in Schools (Centre for Education Services, 2005).
The style is clear, the treatment is balanced. This book is a real service to the Church today
- Catholic Ireland.net
Pentecost 1998 witnessed a plenary gathering of representatives of fifty-six invited ecclesial communities in Rome with the Pope. This was an epic moment in the historical development of the new movements most of which have swept through the Church in the final decades of the last millennium. A host of new ecclesial movements, with an astonishing array of charisms and committed members have sprung up all over the world. Most surprisingly of all, the main human protagonists in this new development have been lay people.
Yet these new movements have not suddenly sprung up in isolation from already existing roots and it is important to situate their emergence in the Church within an historical context. Given the reality that the vast majority of those involved in the life and animation of the new ecclesial movements are lay people, an important factor that needs to be considered, as part of the historical milieu which has enabled the birth of these new ecclesial communities, is the re-awakening of the laity to their proper role in the Church. Such a re-awakening of the laity has been fostered by a number of key figures who prophetically helped to re-orient the Church back to its apostolic roots where all the baptized considered themselves as equals and all saw themselves as evangelists.
However, laity are not the only members of the new ecclesial communities and the various states of life represented in the movements is one of their riches. As J. Beyer has pointed out,
the notion itself of communion, which is a distinctive feature of the Church, in the way Vatican II contemplates her mystery, remains incomprehensible if it is not made visible in the living Church herself. These new forms of communion [the movements] seem to have been created precisely to enable people to understand and experience this communion.... What the Spirit illuminated in the Council, was expressed by the Spirit with this new gift to the life of the Church. (1)
However, notwithstanding the various expressions of community life to which the new ecclesial movements bear eloquent testimony, the emergence of a vibrant lay spirituality is hugely significant and warrants some detailed analysis and explanation. Undoubtedly Vatican II had a huge impact on the Churchs understanding of the lay apostolate and this was pivotal in enabling the new movements to secure a place in the heart of the Church.
Another factor which helps to clarify the place of the new movements in the Church is to situate them within the historical tradition of renewal movements that have been a perennial feature of the life of the Church. In reviewing some of these historical incidences one can detect clearly the tension between conflicting concepts of the Church, concepts which lead to an examination of the relationship between the local and the universal, between the Petrine ministry and the collegiality of the episcopacy, between the institutional and the charismatic, between the Marian and the Petrine. I believe the research clearly indicates that not only did this phenomenon of "movement" stimulate a constant renewal trend within the tradition of Church but it also provoked controversy. The problems and the promise associated with the new twentieth-century ecclesial movements can best be assessed by examining them within an historical framework. Then one can better appreciate their place in the ongoing dynamic plan of the Holy Spirit who continues to animate a constant renewal of the Church.
As Karl Rahner has lucidly explained,
the charismatic is essentially new and always surprising. To be sure it also stands in inner though hidden continuity with what came earlier in the Church and fits in with her spirit and her institutional framework. Yet it is new and incalculable and it is not immediately evident at first sight that everything is as it was in the enduring totality of the Church. For often it is only through what is new that it is realized that the range of the Church was greater from the outset than had been previously supposed and so the charismatic feature, when it is new, and one might almost say it is only charismatic if it is so, has something shocking about it. It can be mistaken for facile enthusiasm, a hankering after change, attempted subversion, lack of feeling for tradition and for the well-tried experience of the past. (2)
The arrival of charisms has always, inevitably, involved a certain disturbing of the peace. One also needs to be aware that the skeptical voices currently raised against the liberty afforded to some of these new ecclesial movements is also part of their historical evolution. An historical sweep of lay spirituality and the legacy of previous "movements" in the history of the Church is a necessary prerequisite to provide a backwhich situates the new movements in the life of the Church. Likewise, the crucial role played by the new ecclesiology of Vatican II is critical in assisting the acceptance of the new ecclesial movements within the Church. The deeper appreciation of charisms and the role of the Holy Spirit is central to this new ecclesiology. I attempt to situate the new movements within a theology of charisms and understand this new reality as another surprise of the Spirit. As Cardinal Suenens wrote in A New Pentecost?,
The Spirit is the living breath of the Church leading it on its pilgrimage, as long ago the pillar of cloud by day and the pillar of fire by night led the people of Israel in the desert; He is at once continuity and freshness, "new things and old" (Mt 13:52), tradition and progress. (3)
The Spirit is living Tradition and he binds successive generations to the Lord Jesus "who is, who was, and who is to come" (Rv 1:4). It is he who explains to the disciples of Jesus those things in the teachings of the Master that up to now they were not able to bear. He heals them little by little of their "incredulity and obstinacy" (Mk 16:14). He draws from the one word of God that which will quench the thirst of each generation: "You will draw water joyfully from the springs of salvation" (Is 12:3). He calls to mind the word of God giving it a freshness and a capacity to shed light on what is actually happening at the moment. He never repeats himself: each time his teaching of the word confers a new resonance and a new urgency. The Spirit recalls to the Church in a living and practical way the teaching of Christ. In order to understand its true and actual message, the Spirit must teach us.
The Spirit is also a living movement forward. He is reaching out to what is yet to come, carrying the past in order to propel it into the future. He is at the source of the great decisions that have determined the course of the Churchs mission. The Acts of the Apostles mentions him at the Council of Jerusalem (Ac 15:28), and attributes to him Pauls decision to cross over into Europe. The Spirit is always at work to prevent the Church from taking itself as an end in itself and finding complacency in self-satisfaction. He wants Christians to set out on the journey each morning, and with a minimum of baggage. (4)
The overall aim of the book is to introduce the phenomenon of the new ecclesial movements to a wider audience. Just as the Second Vatican Council was a significant surprise to the Church and the world, so too the emergence of these new ecclesial movements has caused more than a little stir. Almost like an unexpected pregnancy (perhaps even an unwanted pregnancy), their arrival has brought a mixture of joy and dismay. Some see them as a hope for the Church in the midst of difficult times, others see them as usurpers and divisive at a time when the Church needs unity and clarity.
1. J Beyer, "I Movimenti ecclesiali," Vita Consecrata 23 (1987) 156.
2. K. Rahner, The Dynamic Element in the Church (Freiburg: Herder; London: Burns and Oates, 1964) 83.
3. Leon Joseph Cardinal Suenens, A New Pentecost? (Collins Fountain Books, 1975) 229.
4. Suenens, A New Pentecost, 230.
CHAPTER ONE: FEATURES
Who are these new Ecclesial Movements?
The new spiritual movements are groupings, mostly comprising laypersons, but also clerics and religious, who are striving for an intense religious life in the community and a renewal of the faith in the Church. They are mostly organized on a translocal level and have a varying regional distribution. Coda dislikes the prefix "lay" before them because he sees such a definition as "reductive." (1) Both he and Beyer, who has analyzed the evolution of the movements and the forms they take in a number of articles, agree that the term "movements" indicates that these groups already differ in their structures from the conventional forms of communities of the Church. (2)
The appearances of these movements are extremely diverse and manifold so that the common denominator with regard to their makeup is not easy to find. The distinction from other groups is not always easy. They differ from the classical religious orders and modern forms of religious orders, since they are not founded on so radical a life decision, which - as in religious orders - is sealed with lifelong vows and because they, therefore, have less institutional and constitutional elements. They show some similarity to secular institutes, which after World War II were established officially in the Catholic Church, but they tend not to be as tightly structured. The term "movements" is appropriate because it implies well the flexible form of the communities. Yet, they are more structured and more committed than groups formed spontaneously. However, official statements and documents of the Church repeatedly point out that the new spiritual movements are most closely connected with the great basic forces of the post-Conciliar renewal and with many other movements of present-day ecclesiastical life.
The statement of the German Bishops Conference regarding the Guidelines for the Bishops Synod of 1987 mentions the classic Catholic federations, the spiritual movements and base communities as important basic forms of communities in the apostolate of the laity. (3) The post-synod apostolic publication Christifideles laici encourages alliances of the laity to promote the richness and the diversity of the gifts, which the Spirit keeps alive in the Church. (4)
The Bishops Synod of 1994 conferred on The Consecrated Life and Its Mission in the Church and in the World. Already in the preparatory documents "new communities and renewed forms of life according to the Gospel" had been defined. In its definition of the new communities, the post-synod apostolic publication Vita Consecrata, which was presented on March 25, 1996, points out that the new associations are not alternatives to the earlier institutions but rather are a gift of the Spirit, which manifests itself through the signs of the times and is the origin of the community and of perpetual renewal of life. (5)
What is an Ecclesial Movement?
In a letter to the World Congress of Ecclesial Movements in May, 1998, Pope John Paul II defined a movement as "a concrete ecclesial entity, in which primarily lay people participate, with an itinerary of faith and Christian testimony that founds its own pedagogical method on a charism given to the person of the founder in determined circumstances and modes." (6)
This definition highlights three traits of the new movements: They are primarily lay, their work is to evangelize, and their charism comes from their founder. In essence they are vibrant Christian communities with predominantly lay membership who are aware that they are on a journey of faith; they exemplify a Christian witness based on a precise charism given to the person of the founder or founders in specific circumstances and ways.
Rather than give a specific definition of what constitutes an ecclesial movement, Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger, then Prefect of the Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith and presently Pope Benedict XVI, chose to indicate a "number of criteria," chief of which is "being rooted in the faith of the Church." (7) Without unity with the apostolic faith, one cannot lay claim to apostolic activity. Such a desire for unity gives rise to a second criterion, namely, to be "incorporated into the living community of the whole Church" and "to stand at the side of the successors of the apostles and the successor of Peter who bears responsibility for the harmonious interaction between the local Church and the universal Church as the one People of God." (8)
As Bishop Cordes pointed out, "Movements originate only if they have a different level than that of their surrounding environment." (9) They are different from the norm in the way that they live and act. However, in the teachings of John Paul II, the movements are a normative form of life for the Church, an expression of the life of the Church.
If on 30 May 1998, I spoke in St. Peters Square of "a new Pentecost," referring to the growth of charisms and movements which has occurred in the Church since the Second Vatican Council, with this expression I wished to acknowledge the development of the movements and new communities as a source of hope for the Churchs missionary action, (10)
The Pope said in this regard that it is significant to see how the Holy Spirit has continued to work throughout the Churchs history, and today has called forth many varied forms of movements.
Ecclesial movements, inspired by a desire to live the Gospel more intensively and to announce it to others, have always been manifest in the midst of the People of God.... In our day and particularly during recent decades, new movements have appeared that are more independent of the structures and style of the religious life than in the past. (11)
They are new things that need to be fully understood in their full form as a work of God in our day. The Pope provoked further debate and reflection on this whole issue when he stated that the
Church herself is a movement and above all she is a mystery, the mystery of the eternal love of the Father from whose paternal heart the mission of the Son and the mission of the Holy Spirit derive their origin. The Church born of this mission, is in statu missionis; she is a movement and penetrates hearts and minds. The mission of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit is the mission of the Church. It is therefore the mission of the movements. The movements are an expression of Gods diversified plan in the Church. The mission has its origin in the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. This is a movement of the Church throughout time.(12)
This declaration is a restatement of something that he had underlined earlier in his pontificate:
In fact, one of the most important fruits produced by the movements is precisely that of knowing how to release in so many lay faithful, men and women, adults and young people, an intense missionary zeal, which is indispensable for the Church as she prepares to cross the threshold of the third millennium. However, this objective is only achieved where "these movements humbly seek to become part of the life of local Churches and are welcomed by Bishops and priests within diocesan and parish structures" (Redemptoris missio, n. 72). (13)
Church, Institution or Charism?
With the emergence of the movements in the Church some have tried to set up a dialectic between "institution and event, or institution and charism." (14) As Ratzinger points out, such a concept is flawed. The fundamental institutional reality that characterizes the Church is her sacramental ministry in its varying degrees. Ultimately, the "sacrament, that significantly bears the name Ordo, is, in the final analysis, the sole permanent and binding structure that forms so to say the fixed order of the Church." (15) As it is a sacrament, it must be perpetually created anew by God and it is primarily called into existence by Him, at the charismatic and pneumatological level.
The Church is not our institution, but the irruption of something else; that it is intrinsically iuris divini has as its consequence that we can never apply institutional criteria to her; and the Church is entirely herself only where the criteria and methods of human institutions are transcended.(16) Of necessity, the Church has institutions of purely human right to enable administration and organization but there is always the danger that if they become too powerful they can jeopardize the order and the vitality of her spiritual reality.
Another dialectical pairing proposed is that between a christological and pneumatological view of the Church. It is argued that the sacrament of Church belongs to the christological-incarnational aspect which then needs to be supplanted by the pneumatological-charismatic element. A distinction does need to be drawn between Christ and the Holy Spirit but they are also united as a communio with the Father and with one another. Christ and the Spirit can only be rightly understood together. "The Lord is the Spirit," says Paul in the Second Letter to the Corinthians (3:17).
A third model suggested is the relation between the permanent order of ecclesial life and new irruptions of the Spirit on the other, sometimes characterized in terms of Luthers dialectic between Law and Gospel which leads to a tension between the cultic-sacerdotal aspect and the prophetic aspect of salvation history. In this outlook the movements would be ranged on the side of prophecy.
Each of these three outlooks indicate a desire or a tendency to treat the movements as something parallel to the Church; often they are seen as separate entities to the more traditional structures of diocese, institution and parish. It can even lead to the accusation that the movements want to create a parallel Church. (17) In Scolas view time has erroneously been wasted on examining this dualistic presupposition that is flawed from the outset. (18)
Theological Definition of Movement
However, we can make some theological analysis to differentiate the word "movement" from its sociological meaning. In the history of theology it has been used to designate phenomena which were characterized by a strong sense of renewal. According to Fernandez, (19) the characteristics of the eccesial movements are that they emerge as a result of a charism which "makes itself present in the reality of the local and the universal Church." (20) This new charism often helps other older charisms or existing eccesial forms which have become somewhat muted from age or exhaustion to rediscover the energy and vitality of their gift and mission. Moreover, charisms are of their very nature "catholic" in that "they transcend the local frontiers in which they were born." (21) They tend to manifest spontaneously the catholic nature of the Church, and an "immense ecclesial fertility" (22) is unleashed. Not only is the ontological and missionary sense of baptism energized in the laity but various forms of consecrated virginity and religious life, as well as vocations to the priesthood, are fostered. The lessons of history are that such springs of renewal have always had a "profound Marian and Petrine sense," (23) the latter in various ways supporting them to spread in catholicity.
Ratzinger sees the movements as sharing in the universal apostolic responsibility of the successor of Peter.(24) Scola sees them as a particular realization of Church, which is itself a "movement." For him, "Movement" means mission; apostolate, and identity is in mission; the particular and the universal are aspects of the same Church. (25)
Bishop Albert de Monleon eloquently portrays the movements as places of a transfigured humanity which is founded on a personal encounter with the Living Christ revivifying the grace of baptism. (26) Giovanni Magnani notes that the whole Church has a "lay character." It is a permanent, practical and stable way that he sees indicated in the conciliar affirmation of a proprium (or" distinctive character," "although not an exclusive one") of the laity which finds its full justification here. (27)
All the states of life, whether taken collectively or individually in relation to the others, are at the service of the Churchs growth. While different in expression, they are deeply united in the Churchs "mystery of communion" and are dynamically coordinated in its unique mission. The new ecclesial movements remind all of us, regardless of our state of life, that we are called to a deep unity in Christ.
Criteria of Ecclesiality
Pope John Paul II in his first Encyclical, Redemptor Hominis, identified the emergence of new lay groups with "a different outline and an excellent dynamism" (28) as one of the fruits of the post conciliar period. He saw them as a providential response because "they represent one of the most significant fruits of that springtime in the Church which was foretold by the Second Vatican Council but which unfortunately has been hampered by the spread of secularism." (29) As formulated in Christifideles laici, there are "clear and definite criteria for discerning and recognizing lay groups, also called Criteria of Ecclesiality.(30) These criteria call for:
(1) The creation of schools of holiness which promote a unity between faith and life.
(2) An inescapable responsibility to confess the Catholic faith and to clearly show fidelity to the Churchs magisterium in matters of faith and doctrine.
(3) Witness of communion, steadfast and convinced with the Pope, who is the center of unity between the universal Church and the Bishop. Ubi Petrus ibi Ecclesia - ubi Episcopus ibi Ecclesia. (This principle is expressed at the diocesan level in obedience to the Bishop and in willing collaboration with other associations and movements. Moreover, Church communion demands both an acknowledgment of a legitimate plurality of forms in the associations of the lay faithful in the Church and at the same time, a willingness to cooperate in working together). (31)
(4) Compliance with and participation in the apostolic aims of the Church. Therefore each community should have a strong missionary thrust to the whole world and guard against closing in on oneself or ones circle.
(5) A committed presence in society, to build it according to the spirit of the gospel; this requires solidarity, defense of human rights and the dignity of persons: the Christian is called to "work for the sanctification of the world from within as a leaven." (32)
(6) A renewed commitment to making Christ present in our world through solidarity, service and charity.
Movements as Response to Need
In a thoughtful presentation to the Bishops, gathered by Pope John Paul II in the year 1999 to reflect on the phenomenon of the new ecclesial movements, Guzman Carriquiry (Sub-Secretary of the Pontifical Council for the Laity, the married lay person with the greatest level of responsibility in the Vatican), elucidated how the movements respond to certain needs which are core aspects of the mission of the Church.
In his view, one of the salient characteristics of the new movements is that they are a charismatic reality which "responds to a deeply felt need today for a rediscovery and revitalization of the Christian experience in the life of the Church." (33) For him this is crucially important because some ecclesiastical structures and programs have become somewhat jaded or insipid in proposing Christ.
By means of the charisms "of the new movements, the presence of Christ becomes a living reality, a real presence, a source of newness, of capacity for affection and persuasion, just as the person of Jesus was for the apostles and the first disciples two thousand years ago... the movements are ways in which the event of Christ and his mystery in history, namely, the Church, encounter the life of persons, full of joy and hope, without reservations or inhibiting quibbles, of the truth that Jesus is Lord." (34)
Moreover, the charisms enable an existential dynamic of communicating the faith in persuasive, convincing forms consolidated by a life of faith. Given the erosion of much of the Christian environment, which heretofore had been the norm in many societies, the encounter "with witnesses who are walking testimonies of the presence of Christ" (35) is both fascinating and attractive. This is a vital characteristic of the new ecclesial movements which seek to meet man in the heart of his own milieu with a joyful witness to the living Lord.
Movements as a "Providential Response"
The poet T.S. Eliot characterized the society of the last century as being a "rootless generation" (36) and in such an environment it is difficult if not impossible to build community. Some see the arrival of the new movements as a "providential response." Through the charism which calls individuals to follow Christ in a radical way, they are also infused with a "spiritual affinity" which bonds them into communities and movements, living representations of the Church, mysteries of communion in the very heart of humanity. They are "signs of the freedom of forms" (37) which Pope John Paul II alluded to when addressing the Communion and Liberation Movement in 1984.
One of the great emphases of Vatican II was the call, not only to deepen the awareness of the eccesiology of communion, but to steadfastly work for its realization. (38) The movements embody the mystery of communion and propagate it on the basis of the strong appeal exerted by their community experiences. They seek to provide an antidote to the impersonalism and the fragmentation of many of the societies in which we live. The witness of authentic Christian love can be as compelling a testimony to communion today as it was in the lives of the first Christians.
Fraternity, a Core Characteristic
Characteristic of the new ecc1esial movements is the conviction of being believers on the way together. Fraternity and fellowship are core elements of the new ecclesial movements. For some communities, the passage in the Sacred Scriptures, Where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them" (Mt 18:20), has become their primary text; only through Christ and in Him is true community and mutual fraternal like-mindedness possible. The experience of community life in the name of Jesus, however, is not an end in itself. It is from the beginning open to others. So the group, that is, the concrete spiritual community, can also be understood as a "Church in miniature." (39) In this way, the designation of the Church as Communio can be translated into an experiential and visible reality.
Such a life in spiritual community is, therefore, stamped with a different sense of brother-sister fraternalism. This, by necessity, has a broad spectrum. It has the security and closeness of a small group, it also has the solidarity of larger communities, particularly in the Church; this means all embracing Catholicism and internationality. Brother-sister fraternalism becomes ministry to others. The way to God leads through the brother and the sister. With that purpose in mind, the various group meetings are intended to be an aid and encouragement. The personal discussions, corrections and encouragements, but especially the experience of not being alone in this endeavor, of being connected to others and of being supported by them, gives to the individuals new strength for their different duties. It can be argued that for todays materialistically minded and consumer oriented society, the orientation towards poverty, as it is being lived by the members of the spiritual communities, is a particularly up-to-date testimony.
The experience of a vibrant community life, which is a hallmark of the new movements, prompts a renewed consciousness and experience of the sacramental, Eucharistic source as the only one capable of building the communio that the world is unable to create. They seek to confirm a fundamental precept of Christifideles laici that "in order to reconstruct the fabric of human society what is needed first of all is to remake the Christian fabric of ecclesial communities themselves." (40)
1. Piero Coda, "The Ecclesial Movements. Gifts of the Spirit," Laity Today (2000) 95.
2. See J. Beyer, "I Movimenti Ecclesiali," Vita Consecrata, 23 (1987) 156; "Il Movimento Ecclesiali: Questioni Attuali," Vita Consecrata 26 (1990) 483-494 and "I Movimenti Nuovi Nella Chiesa." Vita Consecrata 27(1991) 61-77.
3. Cf. "Guidelines" 45. Ed. Secretariat of the German Bishops Conference, May 2, 1986,
4. Cf. Pope John Paul II, Christifideles laici, ?º 29.
5. Cf. Pope John Paul II, Vita Consecrata, ?º62.
6. Pope John Paul II, "Movements in the Church," Laity Today (1999)18.
7. Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger, "The Ecclesial Movements; a Theological Reflection on Their Place in the Church," Laity Today (1999) 25.
9. Paul Josef Cordes, Charisms and New Evangelisation (St. Pauls Publications, 1991)23.
10. Pope John Paul II, "Message to the participants in the Seminar on The Ecclesial Movements in the Pastoral Concern of the Bishops, Laity Today (1999)17.
11. Pope John Paul II, "Directives on Formation in Religious Institutes," ?º92.
12. Pope John Paul II, "Homily at the Mass for participants at the congress of Movements in the Church," Insegnamenti 4/II (1981), 305-306.
14. Ratzinger, "The Ecclesial Movements: a Theological Reflection on Their Place in the Church," Laity Today (1999) 25.
16. Ibid., 26.
17. E. Barcelon, "Las asociaciones y movimientos laicales en la vida y mision de la Iglesia," Teologica Espiritual 36 (1992)193ff.
18. Angelo Scola, "The Reality of the Movements in the Universal Church and the Local Church," Laity Today (1999). See P. Mullins, "The Theology of Charisms: Vatican II and the New Catechism," Milltown Studies 33 (1994), 123-162. J. Beyer, "Le Laicat et des Laics dans LEglise," Gregorianum 68 (1987), 157-185. M. de Merode, "Theologie du L;aicat Aujourdhui," Lumen Vitae 41 (1986), 379-392. G. Grouthier, "Eglise Locale au Eglise Particuliere; Querelle Semantique au Option Theologique?" Studia Canonica 25. Jean Marie Til1ard, "LEglise Locale: Ecclesiologie de Communion et Catholicit?®," (1995).
19. Fidel Gonzalez-Fernandez, "Charisms and Movements in the History of the Church. The Ecclesial Movements in the Pastoral Concern of the Bishops," Laity Today (2000), 71-103.
20. Ibid., 103.
24. Ratzinger, "The Ecclesial Movements; a Theological Reflection on Their Place in the Church," 35.
26. Bishop Albert de Monleon, "The Movements as Places of a Transfigured Humanity," Laity Today (1999): 149-163.
27. Giovanni Magnani, "Does the So-Called Theology of the Laity Possess a Theological Status? Vatican II Assessments and Perspectives, Twenty-Five Years Later (1962-1987)" (1988) 621-622.
28. Pope John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Redemptor Hominis, ?º5.
29. Pope John Paul II, "Message to the World Congress of Ecclesial Movements, 1998," Laity Today (1999) 222.
30. Pope John Paul II, Christifideles laici, ?º30.
31. Cf. Christifideles laici, ?º30.
32. Cf. Lumen Gentium, ?º31.
33. G. Carriquiry, "The Ecclesial Movements in the Religious and Cultural Context of the Present Day," Laity Today (2000) 55.
34. Ibid., 55.
35. Carriquiry, 56.
36. T.S. Eliot, The Waste Land and Other Poems, Faber and Faber, 1964,33.
37. Pope John Paul II, "Address to the Communion and Liberation Movement," Insegnamenti VII/2 (1984) 696.
38 Cf. Lumen Gentium, ?º11.
39 Cf. Lumen Gentium, ?º11; Gaudium et Spes, ?º48; Apostolicam Actuositatem, ?º11; Familiaris Consortio, ?º49.
40. Carriquiry, 61.